The COVID-19 pandemic has limited Christians’ access to face-to-face spiritual nourishment provided by their own church, whether through Sunday worship, Wednesday Bible studies, cell group and discipleship gatherings, or other church activities. Pastors were anxious and concerned whether online church programs, such as streaming Sunday worship and Zoom Bible study sessions, would be adequate to replace the spiritual nourishment they provided before the pandemic. In a recent (spring 2021) National Survey on Spirituality, the Bilangan Research Center (BRC) of Jakarta noted that 10 months into the pandemic, as compared to the beginning of the pandemic in March 2020, there was a very slim increase in the number of Christians in urban Indonesia who were actively accessing digital platforms (such as YouTube videos, podcasts, and digital articles) for the purpose of spiritual nourishment and growth (3 percent).

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